Maths & measurement

Q.1
Babylonian mathematicians devised a counting system based on the number:

Q.2
How many years are encompassed by the ancient Metonic cycle (a near-exact common multiple of the solar year and the lunar month, named after Meton of Athens)?

Q.3
Italian merchant Leonardo of Pisa is famous for introducing what to Europe?

Q.4
A scientific explanation based on the fewest possible causes – named after William of Ockham – is known as:

Q.5
The supercomputer that defeated chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov was called: